What is Zigbee Protocol

What you will learn here about Zigbee

  • What is Zigbee Protocol

What is Zigbee Protocol

Zigbee is most popular wireless communication protocol. Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Zigbee is one of the most widely used standards for wireless communication between different IoT devices and has been adopted by many major companies, like Samsung and Philips. Zigbee is an open standard for low-power, low-cost wireless personal area networks that interconnect devices primarily for personal uses. The standard aims to provide a two-way and reliable communication protocol for applications with a short range, typically 10-100 meters. Zigbee is implemented with different application standards used in a variety of application areas, including home automation, smart energy, remote control and health care.

zigbee components

Zigbee invovles three components and those are

  1. Cordinator
  2. Router
  3. End Device

What is Zigbee Protocol


Each Zigbee network must have one coordinator that manages the overall network. A coordinator usually functions as the trust center that provides security control of the network. The coordinator is responsible for establishing or creating the network. In that process, it chooses the channel that is used in the network for the devices to communicate. Then the coordinator gives permission to other devices to join or leave the network and keeps track of all the end devices and routers. Also, it configures devices and enables end-to-end security between devices. More importantly, the coordinator stores and distributes the network keys. In a Zigbee network, the coordinator cannot sleep and needs to be continuously powered.


Routers in a Zigbee network act as intermediate nodes between the coordinator and the end devices. Routers have to join the network first by the permission of the coordinator. Then they can route traffic between end devices and the coordinator, as well as transmit and receive data. A router also able to allow other routers and end devices to join the network. Similar to the coordinator, routers also cannot sleep as long as the network is established.

End Device

A Zigbee end device is the simplest type of device on a Zigbee network, and it is often low-power or battery-power. End devices are what the customers are more familiar with, like motion sensors, contact sensors, and smart light bulbs. The end devices also must join the network first to communicate with other devices. However, unlike the coordinator and the routers, the end devices do not route any traffic and cannot allow other devices to join the network. As a result of the inability to relay messages from other devices, the end devices can only communicate within the network through their parent nodes, often routers. Also difierent from the other two types of devices, the end devices can enter low power mode and sleep to conserve power. This feature makes battery power possible for
end devices.

Can we connect End Device directly to Cordinator?

Yes, we can connect End Device directly to Cordinator.

How many minimum components zigbee network can have?

The zigbee network can have atleast one Cordinator and one End device.

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